Monday, 15 January 2007

13-19 April 2003: Euromed Regional E.GE.A. Congress

13-19 April 2003. Euromed Regional E.GE.A. KALLONI – LESVOS – GREECE*
Congress «Out of the map: Local Geographies of a Mediterranean island». Workshop: Salt marshes and brackish ecosystems.

Organized by:
Yiorgos Kyriazis (workshop leader) & Christina Kontaxi (workshop assistant)

1. Tobias Umlauft EGEA LEIPZIG
2. Alexsandra Privsek EGEA LJUBLJANA
3. Maja Walczak EGEA WARSAW
4. Karsten Schacht EGEA MUENSTER
5. Bibisidoy Katerina EGEA SALONICA


Salinas Operation Principles
• Seawater as the primary material
• Earth, in the form of the impermeable clay soil on which the water is held
• Solar energy
• Wind energy
Resulting in:
• Evaporation of the sea water
• Crystallization of the salt

Required natural features
1. A large littoral expanse of relatively flat land characterized by virtually impermeable soil
2. Weather favoring negative water balance (High rates of evaporation, minimal rainfall while the salt is being produced)

Mediterranean Salinas classification
- primitive or artisanal salinas, in which salt is gained with little or no human intervention, mainly collected from nature (e.g. rocky coasts, closed lagoons etc).
- traditional salinas, comprising small compartments and crystallizers that can be efficiently operated by one or two persons. They are characterized by intense human presence in all stages of salt-making.
- semi-industrial salinas (rather saltworks), with relatively large compartments and crystallizers. They are still characterized by involvement of man and are manually operated at least for salt harvest.
- fully mechanized huge industrial saltworks, with almost no manual operation, that are extremely large and economically profitable.

Fully mechanized saltworks
• Saltpans in serial connection (salt is concentrated to saturation in successive basins)
• Crystalizers (rectangular flat basins where the saturated brine is introduced periodically and deposits on the bottom a layer of salt 8 to 17cm thick)
• Reservoirs (brine storage against rainfall)
• Pumping stations (brine transfer)
• Canals, gates, small bridges (control of the flow of brine)
• Equipment for harvesting, transporting, washing and storing the salt.
• Weather station
• Chemistry laboratory (quality control)

Greek Salinas
1. Messi Rodopi (saltworks belonging to Hellenic Saltworks SA)
2. Kesani – Xanthi (saltworks belonging to Hellenic Saltworks SA)
3. M.Emvolo – Thessaloniki (saltworks belonging to Hellenic Saltworks SA)
4. Kitros Pieria (saltworks belonging to Hellenic Saltworks SA)
5. Lefkimmi – Kerkyra (dormant saltworks owned by the Greek State)
6. Kopraena – Arta (dormant saltworks owned by the Greek State)
7. Alexandros – Lefkas (dormant saltworks owned by the Greek State)
8. Messolonghi (saltworks belonging to Hellenic Saltworks SA)
9. Tourlis (saltworks belonging to local authorities)
10. Lehaena – Ilia (dormant saltworks owned by the Greek State)
11. Katastari – Zakynthos (dormant saltworks owned by the Greek State)
12. Kopanas – Evia (dormant saltworks owned by the Greek State)
13. Anavyssos – Attiki (dormant saltworks owned by the Greek State)
14. Lemnos (saltworks under construction)
15. Kalloni - Lesvos (saltworks belonging to Hellenic Saltworks SA)
16. Polichnitos – Lesvos (saltworks belonging to Hellenic Saltworks SA)
17. Samos (dormant saltworks owned by the Greek State)
18. Adamas – Milos (saltworks belonging to Hellenic Saltworks SA)
19. Tigaki – Kos (dormant saltworks owned by the Greek State)
20. Kythira (saltworks belonging to local authorities)

Greek Saltworks: expansion and potential
Messolonghi: surface 1,162 (hectares) – potential 120,000 (metric tons)
Kitros Pieria: surface 362 (hectares) – potential 40,000 (metric tons)
Kalloni – Lesvos: surface 263 (hectares) – potential 40,000 (metric tons)
Polichnitos – Lesvos: surface 60 (hectares) – potential 10,000 (metric tons)
Messi Rodopi: surface 140 (hectares) – potential 15,000 (metric tons)
N.Kesani – Xanthi: surface 90 (hectares) – potential 5,000 (metric tons)
M.Emvolo – Thessaloniki: surface 105 (hectares) – potential 5,000 (metric tons)
Adamas – Milos: surface 50 (hectares) – potential 8,000 (metric tons)

FIND MORE: ALAS (ALl About Salt)

Lesvos is the third largest of the Greek Islands. The island comprises 1632 km2, with a maximum length of 70 km and width of 45 km. The island is closer to the Turkish mainland than the Greek mainland, being only 14 km west of Turkey across the Aegean Sea. There is a general ginko leaf-like appearance to the island of Lesvos. This appearance derives from the two gulfs, which divide the island into three unequal parts (Gulf of Yera, in the east & Gulf of Kalloni, in the west). The gulfs are, in all likelihood, a product of local response, in the form of grabens, to regional tectonism.

The compound interaction of the closing of the Mediterranean in the north–south direction and the westward movement of Anatolia Turkey has contributed to the production, as well as uplift and exposure of metamorphosed rocks. Extrusive igneous materials overlie these, in turn. The rocks have also been subjected to lateral motion that produced low angle faults. Regional crustal uplift and tension produced a series of horsts and grabens bounded by near vertical faults. The subduction and collision has caused deformation, metamorphism, and overthrusting with the superposition of multiple convergent events. Crustal extension formed grabens, which are associated regionally with numerous hot springs and extrusive lava flows. Two major sets of lineaments: one NE–SW and the other, NW–SE. The dip-direction of these faults suggests that northeast to southwest tension produced the grabens oriented NW–SE, and the faults oriented NW–SE were produced by northeast to southwest tension. In the central part of the island there is a series of volcanic centres, situated along a SW-NE direction.

Lesvos suffered at least three post-volcanic tectonic events since Miocene. The first one produced E-W to ENE-WSW trending sinistral strike-slip faults in Late Miocene. The second during Pliocene, caused NW-SE trending normal faults and NNE-SSW trending sinistral strike-slip faults. The third during Pleistocene produced the orientation of the strain ellipsoid changed and an extentional event in the N-S direction took place. It produced E-W trending normal faults ant the reactivation of the pre-existing structures. This tectonic regime seems to be still active in the area. The intense volcanic activity in the area left a large number of active surface thermal manifestations (hot springs, various geothermal fields, etc).

The geological structure of Lesvos island consists of the following rock-units:
-An autochthonous unit of Permo-Triassic age, including schists, quartzites, metasandstones, phyllites and intercalation of marbles and crystalline carbonates, widely extended on the Southeast part of the island. - An ophiolitic nape, comprising basic and ultrabasic rocks and associated deep-sea fine-grained sediments, as well as metamorphic rocks, amphibolites and amphibole schists, metabasites and metasediments, parts of the sole, overthrusted the metamorphic basement.All these alpidic and pre-alpidic rocks were covered later by post-alpine volcanic rocks and Neogene marine and lacustrine deposits such as whitish marls, marly limestone, silts and sandstone, as well as Tertiary deposits.-Neogene volcanic rocks in the central and western part of the island. Lesvos is part of a belt of late Oligocene - middle Miocene calc-alcaline to shoshonitic volcanism of the northern and central Aegean Sea and western Anatolia.

The climate of Lesvos is dry to semi dry and is temperate-Mediterreranean. It has strong spatial and seasonal variations in rainfall and high oscillations between minimum and maximum daily temperatures.1) a hot dry summer period from April to October with a mean temperature of 26.1°C, and total rainfall of 14.7 mm2) a cool-wet winter period from November to March with a mean temperture of 10.4°C. Rainfall is concentrated in this period with a peak of 152 mm in December. The average annual rainfall fluctuates from 725 mm in the eastern part of the island to only 415 in the western part. An intermediate semi-arid region can also be distinguished.The long-term rainfall records in Mytilene show a decrease in rainfall of about 35% in the last 20 years.

The island is interspersed with plains, though it is dominated by mountains (two major peaks are Mt. Olympus 968m and Mt. Lepetimnos 968m)

Very steep (slope>35%) 43.9%Steep (slope 25-35%) 10.2%Moderately steep (slope>18-25%) 13.1%Moderately sloping and strongly sloping soils 17.5%Nearly level to gently sloping soils 15.3%
18% of the island is cultivated

Land use changes in recent years include:

-Agricultural land becoming pasture-Abandonment of annual crops, mainly legumes and cereals, especially in teracces -Abandonment of perrenial trees as almonds, and figs -Abandonment of olive cultivation in big slopes, this area became pasture-Reducing the oak trees because of overgrazing
Cultivated land consists mainly of olive plantations, but also annual crops. Pastures contain trees (both decidous and conifer), to provide necessary shadow. Forests are made up of pines. The area covered with water is a wetland, and thus an important ecosystem with respect to biodiversity.
The main crop is olive trees, and farms are very small in Lesvos.


The gulf is a closed, shallow bay (20 km long, 10 km wide, average depth 10 m) connected to the open Aegean Sea through a 4 km-long narrow channel.
The surface of Kalloni gulf is 110 km2 and the total water volume is 1,3 km3.
The water mass circulation inside the bay is wind driven. The renewal rate of water masses in the semi-enclosed coastal ecosystems controls the presence and distribution of the marine organisms.
The water exchange between semi-enclosed marine areas and the open sea enhance the results of the inflow of agricultural leaching and urban wastes.

Total catchment's area = 270km2
Total surface area of the gulf = 115km2
Total surface of fields = 30km2
The rest is mountains (mainly north-northwest part)
West: maximum height 650-700m
East: maximum height 350 m

Eastern part: ophiolitic nape
Western part: Neogene volcanic rocks
North and northeast: alluvial and coastal processes

All the rivers of the area ‘follow’ the direction of lineaments. Most important being ‘Tsiknias’ and ‘Mylopotamos’

East side
Nyfida bay – river/stream ‘Lagkada’
Polychnitos and Polychnitos saltmarshes – rivers ‘Lounta’, ‘Makri’ and ‘Vouvari’
Low wave action- river/stream dominate
Swamp/Salinas: Skala Polychnitos and Vouvari

North side
Alluvial field of kalloni
Rivers: ‘Kryoneri’ eastwards, ‘Tsiknias’, ‘Mylopotamos’ and ‘Potamia’ westwards
Sandbars W-E because of the general water circulation

West side
Rocky beaches (Neogene volcanic rocks)
Exception deltaic plane of Parakoila and in the SW
Most important: Kalloni wetland
The Kalloni wetland extends over a large part (<50%)>
EGEA Tartu:

Info from participants:
Croatia – County of Zadar – Tourist Association
Slovenia – Tourist Board & Ljubljana

Selected bibliography in English

-Davis, J.S., 2000. Structure, function, and management of the biological system for seasonal solar saltworks. International Journal Global Nest, Vol. 2, No 3, 217-226pp (
-Kontogianni, A., Skourtos, M.S., Langford, I.H., Bateman, I.J. & S. Georgiou, 2001. Integrating stakeholder analysis in non-market valuation of environmental assets. Ecological Economics, Vol. 37, Issue 1, 123-138pp. -Novak, I. D. & N. Soulakellis, 2000. Identifying geomorphic features using LANDSAT-5/TM data processing techniques on Lesvos, Greece. Geomorphology, Vol. 34, Issues 1-2, 101-109pp.
-Panayotidis P., Feretopoulou J. & B. Montesanto, 1999. Benthic Vegetation as an Ecological Quality Descriptor in an Eastern Mediterranean Coastal Area (Kalloni Bay, Aegean Sea, Greece). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 48, Issue 2, 205-214pp.
-Skourtos M.S., Kontogianni, A., Langford, I.H., Bateman, I.J. & S. Georgiou, Integrating stakeholder analysis in non-market valuation of environmental assets, CSERGE Working Paper GEC 2000-22 (

Wednesday, 10 January 2007

EC Youth Programme, Action 1 - Youth for Europe: Youth Exchange*

2-10 September 2006
‘Culture & Biodiversity: paths without frontiers’, Prefectures of Kilkis & Serres, Greece

Host group:
Greece: Mediterranean Information Office for Environment, Culture and Sustainable Development (MIO-ECSDE) (info: & Friends of the Balkan Flora

Sending groups:
Bosnia & Herzegovina: Center for Environment, Growing up healthy, Action against AIDS
Croatia: Ekokvarner (info:, Lijepa Naša (info: & Plavi Val
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Biosfera Bitola (info:
Italy: Legambiente (info: & Italia Nostra (info:
Portugal: Etnia, Terra chà, & City Council of Angra do Heroísmo – CM-AH (info:
Serbia: Danube Environmental Forum of Serbia & Montenegro – DEF S&M (info:
Slovenia: Society of Bird Research and Nature Protection - DPPVN
Spain: Mediterrania-CIE (

Visits to the host country:
Balkan Botanic Garden of Kroussia (info:
Laboratory of Protection and Evaluation of Native and Floricultural Species of the Greek National Agricultural Research Foundation (info:
Ecological Centre Kerkinis - Mpelles ‘Oikoperiigitis’ (info:
Lake Doirani (more info: Goulandri Natural History Museum – Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre: ‘Lake Doiran, a transborder wetland’: (info:

‘Culture & Biodiversity: paths without frontiers’ on the internet:
Mediterranean Information Office for Environment, Culture and Sustainable Development (MIO-ECSDE)
Mediterranean Education Initiative for Environment and Sustainability (MEDIES)
City Council of Angra do Heroísmo – CM-AH
Arturo’s Gallia photos:

12-22 October 2005
For a new water culture, Aitoloakarnania-Athens, Greece

Host group:
Mediterranean SOS Network (info:

‘For a new water culture’ on the internet
Mediterranean SOS Network: &

Lecture about: Water Resources in Greece & EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60
(See full text)

2-11 September 2005
European Youth for a new water culture, Torino Di Sangro - Costa dei Trabocchi, Provincia di Chietti, Italy

Host group:
Italy: ARCI (info:

Sending groups:
Bulgaria: OPENMIND
Greece: Mediterranean SOS Network (info:
Portugal: 3pontos – Ambiente, Arte e Cultura (info:
Romania: Asociatia de Asistenta si Programe pentru Dezvoltare Durabila – Agenda21

Visits to the host country:
Comune di Torino di Sangro (info:
Camping Sangro (

‘European Youth for a new water culture’ on the internet:
3pontos – Ambiente, Arte e Cultura: Download ‘Boletim Informativo” Contrapontos 01:

15-24 July 2005
Cultural Recycling: Re-orienting Cultures towards Sustainability, Evia Island-Greece

Host group:
Greece: Mediterranean Information Office for Environment, Culture and Sustainable Development (MIO-ECSDE) (info:

Sending groups:
Egypt: AOYE – Arab Office for Youth and Environment (
France: Association U Marinu – CPIE Bastia Golo Méditerranée (
Greece: Mediterranean SOS Network (info:
Italy: ITALIA NOSTRA (info:
Lebanon: AMWAJ of the Environment (info:
Morocco: CMEPE – Moroccan Club for Population and Environmental Education & SPANA - Société Protectrice des Animaux et de la Nature (info:
Slovenia: DPPVN – Society of Bird Research and Nature Protection
Spain: MEDITERRANIA, Centre d'Iniciatives Ecològiques (info:
Tunisia: APNEK – Association for the Protection of Nature & Environment, Kairouan (info: & ADPE - Association of Development and of the Protection of the Environment
Turkey: TEMA – Turkish Foundation for Combating Soil Erosion for Reforestation and the Protection of Natural Habitats (info:

‘Cultural Recycling: Re-orienting Cultures towards Sustainability’ on the internet:
Mediterranean Information Office for Environment, Culture and Sustainable Development (MIO-ECSDE)
Mediterranean Education Initiative for Environment and Sustainability (MEDIES)


Water Resources in Greece & EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60

Water Resources in Greece

Hydrological conditions in Greece are characterized by a considerable variability in space and time.
§ The mean annual rainfall ranges usually from 1200 to 400 mm. There is a general reduction from West to East and from North to South
§ There are about 250 river basins
§ Only 13 rivers have a minimum summer discharge capacity over 3 m3/sec. Six of them are trans-boundary rivers in the northern part of the country
§ The main lakes are formed in the mountainous and semi-mountainous zones of the continental part of the country. Generally they are not deeper than 50 m and they cover surfaces less than 100 Km2
§ The hydro geological structure in Greece is very complicated. The main aquifers are developed in sedimentary rocks (sands, gravels, karstic limestones etc)
The main authorities holding networks for quantity and quality observations are the:
• Ministry of Agriculture
• Ministry for the Environment and Public Works
• Public Power Corporation
• Hellenic National Meteorological Service
• Institute for Geological and Mining Research
The existing meteorological stations are more than 1000 and the hydrometric stations are about 170. There are also 650 observatory wells. The quality network reaches the 1000 observation points. The above mentioned authorities created at 1996 a National Data Base in which all the collected data are stored.
- The mean annual water potential in Greece is about 70 x 109 m3 and the total annual water use is estimated to reach about 8, 7 x 109 m3
- At this time 198.000 production wells and 65 dams are in operation
- The water use in agriculture attains 83-85 % whereas the domestic use is only 10-12 % (industrial use = 2%)
- The total irrigated area attain 1,32 x 106 ha
- The irrigated area which is managed by the 10 General and the 442 Local Land Reclamation Boards reaches 0,52 x 106 ha (40%) whereas the area irrigated by private irrigation projects (usually production wells) amounts to 0,8 x 106 ha (60%).

Law 1739 (1987)
Main problems:
§ Greece separated into water regions
§ 153 legislatives never existed!
§ economic problems
§ problems between the ministries (who is responsible?)
§ based on the regions divided 14 ‘water sections’ were introduced
§ in total, Greece has around 250 water basins

New Law (2003) based on the directive 2000/60 EU
Main problem is that the new directive considers as a management base the watershed
Not the entire EU directive is considered

Additionally, in Greece already:
a) Everything is being decided by regions (regions #watersheds)
b) Water from a watershed is being transferred to another (e.g.. Water in Athens comes from West-Central Greece)

In Greece, because of economic difficulties in the 70s there are only few surface water reservoirs constructed: 65 in total.
There are:
3 dams & 1 natural water reservoir for the needs of the capital Athens
16 reservoirs for producing hydroelectric energy
4 dams constructed by the Ministry of Environment & Public works
42 reservoirs (dams & water tanks) constructed by the Ministry of Agriculture
A lot of underground water resources exploitation has resulted in the intrusion of saline water & in the pollution of water by agrochemicals

Hydrographic Network
1. Aliakmonas 297m
2. Acheloos 220m
3. Pineios 205m
4. Evros 204m*
5. Nestos 130m*
6. Strimonas 118m*
7. Kalamas 115m
8. Alfeios 110m
9. Araxthos 110m
10. Eyrotas 82m
(*length in Greek territory)
1. Trixonida 96,5km2
2. Volvi 75,6km2
3. Vegoritida 72,5km2
4. Lagada 47,9km2
5. Vistonida 45,6km2
6. Small Prespa 43,1km2*
7. Large Prespa 38,3km2*
8. Kastorias 28,5km2
9. Iliki 22,7km2
10. Pamvotida 19,1km2
(*surface in Greek territory)

Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC)
European Commission

On 23 October 2000 the
“Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy” or short
EU Water Framework Directive

Key Facts about the Global Water Situation
§ Less than 1% of the planet's water is available for human consumption
§ More than 1.2 billion people have no access to save drinking water
Key Facts about the European Water Situation
§ 20% of all surface water in the European Union is seriously threatened with pollution
§ Groundwater supplies around 65% of all Europe's drinking water
§ 60% of European cities overexploit their groundwater resources
§ 50% of wetlands have "endangered status" due to groundwater over-exploitation
§ The area of irrigated land in Southern Europe has increased by 20% since 1985

The Water Framework Directive expands the scope of water protection to all waters and sets a clear objectives that "good status" must be achieved for all European waters by 2015 and that sustainable water use is ensured throughout Europe*.
(*Member States & Candidate Countries)

Water is not a commercial product, it is a fragile resource
and should be seen as a heritage

First phase of water legislation (1975 & 1980)
§ Drinking Water– fish, shellfish & bathing water – Groundwater
Second phase of water legislation (1991)
§ Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (about biological waste water treatment)
§ Nitrates Directive (water pollution by nitrates from agriculture)
1996: Directive for Integrated Pollution and Prevention Control (pollution from large industrial installations)
1998: Drinking Water Directive (review quality standards)
The Framework Directive:
• Protects all waters - rivers, lakes, coastal waters, and ground waters
• Sets up a system of management within river basins that recognizes that water systems do not stop at political borders
• Requires cross border co-operation between countries and all involved parties
• Ensures active participation of all stakeholders, including NGOs and local communities, in water management activities
• Ensures reduction and control of pollution from all sources like agriculture, industrial activity, and urban areas, etc.
• Requires water pricing policies and ensures that the polluter pays
• Balances the interests of the environment with those who depend on it

Directive contains: 26 Articles
1 Purpose
2 Definitions
3 Coordination of administrative arrangements within river basin districts
4 Environmental objectives
5 Characteristics of the river basin district, review of the environmental impact of human activity and economic analysis of water use
6 Register of protected areas
7 Waters used for the abstraction of drinking water
8 Monitoring of surface water status, groundwater status and protected areas
9 Recovery of costs for water services
10 The combined approach for point and diffuse sources
11 Programme of measures
12 Issues which can not be dealt with at Member State level
13 River basin management plans
14 Public information and consultation
15 Reporting
16 Strategies against pollution of water
17 Strategies to prevent and control pollution of groundwater
18 Commission report
19 Plans for future Community measures
20 Technical adaptations to the Directive
21 Regulatory committee
22 Repeals and transitional provisions
23 Penalties
24 Implementation
25 Entry into force
26 Addressees

Important deadlines of the Directive:
• 2003
National and regional water laws to be adapted to the Water Framework Directive River Basin co-operation to be made operational
• 2004
An analysis of pressures and impacts on our waters to be completed including an economic analysis
• 2006
Monitoring programmes to be operational as a basis for water management
• 2008
River Basin Management plans to be presented to the public
• 2009
First River Basin Management Plans to be published
• 2010
Introduce pricing policies
• 2012
Operational programmes of measures
• 2015
Waters to meet "good status“
• 2021
First management cycle ends
• 2027
Second management cycle ends

Tuesday, 9 January 2007

Ancient marble quarrying in South Evia

The quarries of local green-white marble, Karystias and Styrias stone (lithos), knew big growth at the Roman Times (1ος century B.C. – 2nd century A.D.) and they made the region of Karystias acquaintance in the roman world. The Karystian marble or cipollino was widely exported throughout the powerful Roman Empire and was used mainly as building material. The quarries constituted property of each Roman emperor.

The combination of the green Karystian marble with other marbles of other region it lent glamour and greatness in roman public buildings as in Hadrian’s Library in Plaka - Athens, but mainly in Rome, as the Forum of Augustus and Trajan, in the Basilica of Emilia, in the Conservatoire of Domitianoy, in Amphitheatre of Flabion, in the temples of Concord, as well as Faoystinas and Antoninoy, other and in roman private houses, as Marmurra in Rome (48 B.C.), in that is testified ancientness up to now use of Karystian marble.

The marble was named cipollino from its resemblance to an onion; it was particularly used by Herod Attic who manufactured in Olympia a platform from this material. Processed volumes of the marble are located still in the baths of Market in Ostia, in Capri, in Ormpetello, in public buildings in Sidona, in Leptis Magna, in Palmyra, in Tyre and elsewhere. His use was also continued at the Byzantine years, in important monuments, as in Saint Sofia in Constantinople, in royal Saint Dimitrios Thessaloniki and in the Abbey of Osias Lukas Fokida in Greece.

Today the visitor of Southern Karystias can see quarries groups in mountain Ochis, northern of Mills, in Aetos and in Bourros. Particularly remarkable is the place Kylindroi (Myli) in north-eastern Karystos, with fourteen monolithic marble columns, left abandoned in the building site in modern roman times. Moreover, ancient quarries can be still seen in mountain Verthela, areas Karatza and Kionia Marmari, in the villages of Vatisi-Alexi, near the top of Mount Ombores and in Nimborio at Styra. Four significant groups can also be seen in the mountainous areas of Kryo Nero and Agios Nicolaos of Styra.

More info: Archaeological Museum of Karystos - Giokaleion Foundation


Geologically, southern Evia is different from the rest of the island. Southern Evia belongs to the Attic-Cycladic Massif of crystalline metamorphic deposits, which consist of gneiss, cipollino marble, and various schists (mica, amphibole, glaucophane, sericite and chlorite schists) (see: Sutherland & Sutherland, 2002 - Journal of Cultural Heritage, Vol.3, 251–259pp.)

The southern end of Evia has outcrops of high-pressure/low-temperature rocks named here ‘South Evia Blueschist Belt’, that are the northern extension of the intermediate level Cycladic Blueschist Unit. The South Evia Blueschist Belt consists of three imbricated nappe units, all containing a high-pressure mineral assemblage. These are, from bottom to top, the Tsaki, Styra and Ochi formations (see: Shaked, Avigad & Garfunkel, 2000 - Geol. Mag. Vol.137 (4), 367–380pp.)


Anemomylos apartment hotel